Chair: Tasos Christofides
Room: S3B Sukiennice
Time: 18:45 - 19:30
Date: 27 June
|Title: <<< Quality monitoring and improvement of innovation survey in Republic of Macedonia >>>
Innovation has a central role in the process of output creation and productivity growth. Data on innovation are widely used by policy makers for policy creation and by researchers for estimating of different aspects of innovation process. Because of that production of data on innovation with good quality is of a high interest. Starting from 2013, SSO started with conduction on survey on innovation. In order to ensure international comparability, the standard CIS questionnaire and Oslo Manual are used. For quality monitoring of the outputs of innovation data and also for making the figures transparent and easily accessible to the users, ESQRS, DESAP self-assessment and national Quality Report are prepared. The purpose of the paper is to present the improvement of the innovation data through the period based on the kay indicators calculated in Quality reports used as input for the future work. At the same time in the paper will be briefly presented the methods undertaken for improving the quality of output data for innovation, for example cross-checking method with data from other statistical surveys and the usage of data from administrative sources.
|Loredana De Gaetano|
|Title: <<< A territorial model for the management of data collection processes: a case study >>>
The Italian National Statistical Institute (ISTAT) carries out the survey on the maritime transport of goods and passengers, as required by the Regulation (EU) No 1090/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council. The survey is a census as it refers to the final overall amount of the arrivals and departures recorded in Italian ports. It states, according to law, the obligation for all the agents, consignees and shippers operating in Italian ports to provide to ISTAT the main information on the travels of the relevant ships as well as on the quantity of goods and passengers transported. In order to improve the quality of data collection, within the new ISTAT organizational structure, introduced during 2016, was created the Central Directorate for data collection (DCRD) specifically dedicated to the design, organization, management and integration of the data collection activities. Then a specific project assigned to a selected number of ISTAT territorial offices the new role, of conducting data collection activities on the territory. For the specific purposes of maritime transport survey, ISTAT territorial offices are entrusted with the tasks of updating the list of respondents and carrying out and monitoring data collection on the territory. In addition, according to this model a specific territorial office acquires the role to coordinate the conduction of data collection activity of all the other territorial offices. The paper presents the case study of the ‘Campania’ territorial office that, starting from the survey editions 2017 and 2018, co-ordinates the activities of data collection, in collaboration with the ISTAT Service for the management of data collection from direct surveys (RDC). The analysis is aimed at presenting the improvements both in terms of process efficiency and quality of the results (response rates and timeliness) expected from the new data collection approach.
|Title: <<< Login on Smartphones: A triviality? >>>
There is an ongoing discussion about transforming questionnaires into an appropriate mobile version in order to avoid mode-effects. However, a crucial point is frequently neglected or less discussed implementing online questionnaires: People have problems to get access to the online instrument, due to an uncomfortable login-process. So far, it seems to be rather a blackbox, why people aren’t successful, since basic recommendations are applied (e.g. number of characters, which symbols to avoid etc.). Based on qualitative pretesting research shows concrete evidence on the design of an easy-done login on a Smartphone. By four waves iterative testing the login-process has been adjusted. Results touch topics like cryptic vs. catchy password, displayed vs. faded out input of password, proportional vs. non proportional font. Moreover, we analyzed the duration of the login-process, the key orders on different key boards, the design of input fields, the layout of the covering letter concerning login-information and test-persons’ reported subjective effort and security-ratings. In the end we developed a combination of login design elements, we would prefer. We identified a lot of different details which can be addressed to simplify login processes systematically. In conclusion Charles Eames’ word is even true for the design of login-processes: “The details are not the details. They make the design.”
|Title: <<< About the Quality of the 2013 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Statistical Results versus Political Controversies >>>
Census of Population in Bosnia and Herzegovina was conducted in 2013. Statistical offices conducted census in line with international standards. However, almost all main issues of the Census were politicized. The Census was given many non-statistical characteristics. It was presented by various interest groups as politically important activity, as a population register or a source of data, which could be used for tax policy or property management. For all these reasons, census activities were a subject of political controversies, topics for evaluation of several, mostly statistically unprofessional interest groups or individuals, who had more media attention than statistical expertise and whose influence to the attitude of Bosnian citizens was non-ignorable. The Post-enumeration survey (PES) was conducted in November 2013. The objective of the PES is to provide indicators of the census. In this paper, we will show how the PES was designed and conducted and which statistical models and methods were used for linkage of Census and PES data and for the analysis of Census quality. The last part of the paper will discuss the acceptance of the Census results by different data users such as statistical institutions, journalists, general and expert public. This part of the paper aims to give a rough picture of the general statistical culture in Bosnia and Herzegovina through the prism of the Population Census. In conclusion the evaluation of the quality of 2013 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Bosnia and Herzegovina will be done as well as some proposals for future work.
|Title: <<< Flash estimates and increasing data quality as a result of modern IT-applications and job satisfaction >>>
From 2017 onwards, Statistics Austria publishes flash estimates for road freight transport statistics. These flash estimates enable data users to get first key figures of freight transport of Austrian road freight vehicles already one month after the reference quarter (t+1) instead of five months (t+5). Road freight transport statistics is – with reference to Council Regulation (EC) No 70/2012 on statistical returns in respect of the carriage of goods by road (recast) – performed as a sample survey. Weekly, questionnaires are sent to the respondents, who have to report all journeys of the selected trucks and return the web- or paper-based form to Statistics Austria two weeks later. To check the plausibility of the filled-in forms a Java-application is used since 2014. Prior to that, the reprocessing was very complicated and included different steps and different people in charge. Now, each questionnaire is attributed to one staff member, who is registering its completeness, checking its plausibility and - if necessary - is getting in contact with the respondent to clarify certain parameters. Once finalised, each questionnaire is directly added to the authentic database. Following the two-factor theory of Herzberg about job satisfaction, it was noticed, that the motivation of the staff members improved due to intrinsic factors such as increased responsibility and decision autonomy. The work tasks have become more demanding and therefore interesting with a better insight and understanding of the whole process. Thereby the quality and availability of the produced data enhanced. It was analysed, that one month after the reference quarter already more than 70% of the questionnaires could be correctly finalised. Calculated flash estimates showed similar outcomes to the final key results with a slightly higher sampling error which is still in the frame of precision requirements.
|Title: <<< Do declining response rates negatively affect sample composition? A longitudinal analysis using data from the German General Social Survey (ALLBUS) >>>
The German General Social Survey (ALLBUS) is a repeated cross-sectional multi–thematic survey conducted every other year since 1980. Like many other surveys ALLBUS has been facing the problem of declining response rates. Since 1994 ALLBUS response rates decreased steadily from 54% to 35% at present – despite exerting higher fieldwork efforts. Declining response rates give rise to the question whether this affects survey data quality. Selective participation behavior might threaten the representativeness of a survey in general or with regard to specific questions. In our presentation we use ALLBUS data to analyze the relationship between the response rate and indicators of nonresponse bias over time. The ALLBUS provides a good basis to analyze this relationship, since it has used an almost identical study design since 1994. This includes the definition of the target population (adults living in private households in Germany), the sample design (samples of named individuals), the net sample size (3.500 completed interviews), the interview duration (around 70 minutes), and – particularly important in this context – a consistent calculation of response rates. To investigate nonresponse bias we analyse a) survey participation in ALLBUS with sample frame information from the population registers and b) deviations of the net sample from external benchmark data (namely the German (micro-) census from official statistics). First results indicate that decreasing response rates are not systematically associated with deterioration in demographic sample composition. We will argue that these findings only hold in “controlled” sampling design settings (for instance, when samples of named individuals have been used).
|Title: <<< Maintaining good response rates while changing survey techniques: the case of the Italian Quarterly Business Survey on Job Vacancies and Hours Worked >>>
Response rates in Italian business surveys range from 30-40% in structural more complex ones to a maximum of around 85% in few monthly panel surveys involving only large enterprises or carried out so far exclusively via CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interview). The Italian Quarterly Business Survey on Job Vacancies and Hours Worked had always had response rates in the higher range of this interval (often around 65-70%). This was achieved through a mixed mode survey technique (CATI for around 70% of respondents and CAWI, or Computer Assisted Web Interview, for the remaining 30%), carefully timed and addressed email reminders and daily interaction with the sample enterprises by survey experts. Changes in the laws concerning the interactions between enterprises and public administration and financial constraints made it impossible to continue using the CATI technique after 2016 and required the switch to a unique response mode, CAWI. This change posed serious risks of a fall in response rates. A series of measures were taken to avoid this outcome. In particular, email and certified email reminders were intensified, increased resources were dedicated to responses to emails, certified emails and phone calls by sample enterprises so as to improve their already good timeliness and accuracy. Furthermore, starting from the survey for the II quarter 2017, telephone reminders carried out by an external provider have been introduced, where the telephone operators can also support the enterprises on the questionnaires requests, access to the relevant website and filling in of the online form. The results in terms of response rates have so far been encouraging.
|Title: <<< Design and analysis of the improved Poisson and negative binomial item count techniques >>>
Reliable data on stigmatizing, socially unaccepted or illegal features are very hard to obtain in direct questioning. Many indirect methods of questioning have been developed to help in eliciting honest answers to sensitive questions and to eliminate the social desirability bias. Item count techniques (ICTs) pioneered by Miller (1984) constitute an example of indirect survey techniques designed to deal with sensitive features. These techniques have many practical advantages: they are easy to implement, can be used in telephone and internet surveys, and the way they protect privacy is easy to understand by respondents. Recently Tian et al. (2017) proposed new item count techniques called Poisson and negative binomial ICTs. The new methods give many opportunities for further theoretical and practical developments. But the methods require large sample sizes to obtain a reasonable precision. Efficiency is an important issue in indirect methods of questioning. Protection of respondents’ privacy is usually achieved at the expense of the efficiency of the estimation. In the present paper we propose new improved Poisson and negative binomial ICTs in which each of the two subsamples serve both as a control and a treatment group. This procedure allows to increase efficiency of the estimation as compared to the classic Poisson and negative binomial ICTs and maintain respondents’ privacy at the same level. In the paper we introduce methodology of the proposed improved method and accompanying statistical theory. We analyze and compare best linear unbiased and maximum likelihood estimators of the population proportion of the sensitive attribute. We also compare the improved technique with previously proposed classic Poisson and negative binomial ICTs. The improvement is obtained in terms of efficiency. Gain in efficiency is achieved without affecting the privacy of respondents. Theoretical results presented in the paper are illustrated by comprehensive simulation studies.